Theory Perspective of Enterprise Architecture

Identifications Stage in Theory Perspective

At the identification stage in this theory perspective of EA, I find out as much basic information’s related to the theory of the EA. This information’s about the EA is as follows:

Definition of Enterprise Architecture:

  • Is the highest level model that is produced during the IS strategy process, and is often encountered in relation to application integration, but is essentially similar to middle-ware, differing only in that it provides more sophisticated functionality (Ward & Peppard, 2002).
  • Is a holistic representation of all the component of the enterprise (or organization), and the use of graphics and schematics are used to emphasize all the parts of the enterprise and how they are interrelated (Benson, Bugnitz & Walton, 2004).
  • Is the organizing logic for business processes and IT infrastructure, reflecting the integration and standardization requirements of the company’s operating model (Ross, Weill & Robertson, 2006) [5]
  • Is relates organizational mission, goals & objective to work processes and to the technical or IT infrastructure required to execute them (The Systems & Software Consortium-Urbaczewski & Mrdalj, 2006).
  • Is a conceptual framework for describing the architecture of a business and its information technology, and their alignment (Zarvic & Wieringa, 2006).

Basic Understanding of Enterprise Architecture:

When viewed from the implementation, it will be a guideline for the integration and standardization of the operating model for the organization, so it will provide benefits in the form of guidance on the following matters (Ward & Peppard, 2002);

  • the value of understanding the current conditions in the organization and clear visualization of business processes and the flow of independent information in its organizational structure;
  • provide appropriate communication forum to explain and illustrate the operational model for implementation of the IS and its integration in the organization;
  • give guidance to the stakeholder positions in the IT organization, so if there is turnover stakeholder positions will not affect the flow of information;
  • a data base for the Critical Success Factor (CSF), operational costs, the processes associated with the SI to achieve a position of effective and efficient IS;
  • became the basis of conceptual framework in defining the activities of IS, IS design and description of the progress of IT;
  • became the basis of the definition of future system architectures in the scope of application areas;
  • mechanism to map existing applications against the organization’s business processes; became the basis of understanding in terms of business processes organization;
  • guidelines for the identification of high-level redundancy (assuming that there is redundancy in information/applications in the organization).

Describes the structure of a company in terms of means of production, customer service, strategy and objectives, and use of information and information technology. It provides models to portray component parts of a company and how they work together to achieve its business mission and goals. It connects the company’s business structure, use of information and information technology, and the technology architectures needed (Benson, Bugnitz & Walton, 2004).

Basic Functions of Enterprise Architecture:

In the early stages of EA theoretical perspective, it is necessary to determine the basic functions (the form) of EA to be constructed, namely in the form of commercial organizations (corporations) and non-commercial organizations (government), or in a theoretical lenses referred to as the EA Business and EA form of Government (Turban, Leidner, McLean, & Wetherbe, 2008).

This research also will summarize the four top EA Framework based on the EA basic functions. The basic function of EA and the four top EA framework based on the EA basic functions can be seen in the picture below:

4 Top EA Frameworks - Basic Function

Enterprise Architecture Time-line:

The EA Time-line describes time history of the EA development as follows:

  1. 1987-Zachman’s first article; Zachman was originally described as a framework for information systems architecture and over time changed its name to EA Framework.
  2. 1994-TAFIM released; Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management – US Department of Defense.
  3. 1996-Clinger/Cohen Bill passed: mandated in all federal agencies to take concrete steps in improving the effectiveness of their IT investments. The creation of the CIO Council, comprised of CIOs in all the main government agency, to oversee this effort
  4.  1998-TAFIM retired
  5. 1999- FEAF released; Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework
  6. 2002-FEA replaces FEAF; FEAF methodology as the Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA)
  7. 2003-TOGAF V.8 Enterprise Edition released; Work has been done by TAFIM taken over by The Open Group. The Open Group is doing a metamorphosis in TAFIM Architecture Framework and makes a new standard that is now known as The Open Group Architectural Framework.
  8. 2005-Gartner/Meta merger; Gartner is one of the most influential management consultant, specializing in CIO-level consulting. However, on the other hand, the consultant who is known as a consultant advisor to the EA (IT research and advisory group), is the Meta  Group
  9. 2006-FEA mostly complete

Here below the historical development of the four top EA framework based on time-line, adopted from Roger Sessions paper (Session, 2007).

the historical development of the four top EA framework based on time-line, adopted from Roger Sessions paper (Session, 2007)

June 25, 2011

Edi Triono Nuryatno

Publish in 2011 Society of Interdisciplinary Business Research Conference on Interdisciplinary Business & Economics Research: “Advancing Knowledge from Interdisciplinary Perspectives”, Proceeding available on

Publish in Journal Econometrics: Econometric & Statistical Methods – Special Topics e-Journal, Vol. 4, No. 48: July 1, 2011, available on

Paper available on


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